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Походження озера Балатон
"Swaths of topographic sink depressions interpreted as remnants of paleomeanders in the vicinity of Lake Balaton, Hungary: evidences of young uplift or base level drop?”, B. Székely and other, 2005. 
Water-ice-snow and mudflows in mountain areas on final stage of Wurm glaciations – paper two
Lake Balaton origin – fresh glance
Водо-льодо-снігові та селеві потоки завершальної стадії вюрмського зледеніння гірських країн – стаття друга
Походження озера Балатон
Title of the article that repeated in epigram reveals all puzzles of the Lake Balaton origin. Traditionally, as in other regions and for solving the most interesting puzzles of nature that have no simple solution have tried to solve involving neotectonic factors. However, the clear answer has not been found.. The results presented in this paper obtained on completely new principles. The analysis performed of well-known geological data based on the new principles implementation first in Ukraine.
First paper, under the same title, published four years ago in Ukrainian . The general map for prospected area of those times show on the fig. 1. In article, the researching of post glacial phenomena based on the dividing of the glacial periods on the two stages – phase of ice and potential energy accumulation and phase of its release. The first stage corresponds to the building of ice cover, the second - his ablation.
Visualization DEM permit in the first time recognized the traces of the super mudflows on the northeast Ukrainian Carpathians slope (fig. 1). Within the ending of the glacial age simultaneously with heating of the air the ice begun melting and the upper part lost the grip with hard layers in the bottom. After the grip become weaker, under gravity the soft ice was starting downward move.
Fig. 1. General map of the northeastern slope of the Ukrainian CarpathiansEnergy of the flow was tremendously many times larger than of common water and mudflows. After powerful flows run along valleys. Its lengthwise profiles became stepless and the river inflections became smooth (see top insertion in fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Visual representation of DEM for the northeastern slope of the Ukrainian Carpathians and hypsometric profiles along the Bystryca Solotvynska-river valley (all altitudes a.s.l.). In the black square and on the insertion show the transition from the canyon to the flat valley (D - Dniester; P - Prut; S - Seret, Bs - Bystryca Solotvynska-river 1 - Ivano-Frankivsk, 2 – Kolomyja, 3 - Chernivtsi)
Beside the Dnister-river, the same particularities we can to see in valley of Pryt and Seret (fig. 3). Big interests are transition zones of river valley from the plane to canyon section. Upstream part filled with the clay and loam. The common section of the deposits after mudflow present on the fig. 4. In downward way the ice-water flow are loading oneself up with the weathering and breakdown rocks. In further they are working as abrasive. The ice-water flow is changing to the high-energy mudflow. Its construction show the flow gradually had losing speed and stopped at some distance in the foothills. At that time the separation of rocks occurred. The boulders and pebbles had been fallen at the bottom and the loess - on upper part. Thus, formed the gravel terraces such as those known in the Danube valley and the Riss-river [xxxx].
Fig. 3. Comparison the Middle Dnister and Pryt-river valleys. On the insertion (left), the cutting of the Cheremosh-valley into the Seret-valley (red square on picture). On the insertion (right), the transition of Pryt-river from the canyon to the flat valley (white square on the picture).
Fig. 4. The picture of the career wall located in the Prut-valley near Kolomyja
Top stratum is clay, lower stratum – conglomerate.
On the insert (left) to fig. 3 we can see the unique crossing two rivers, Cheremosh and Seret. Initially (time is unknown) the main way of mudflows was along Seret-valley. Later they went along Cheremosh-valley, which went deeper into the valley Seret up to 150 m. This indicates how much powerful the streams were.
The magnitude of the mudflows observed in the valley of the Prut-river near Kolomyja (fig. 5). Large radius bend of the river and its smoothness might make the powerful flows only. They swapped away all obstacles on your way. The existing on the left bank of three levels is the result of three super mudflows.
Fig. 5. DEM-segment of the Prut-valley and the hypsometric profile near Kolomyja-town
1 – The open-pit where the picture (fig. 5) was took.
There are available data for determining the sequence of filled Dniester’ valleys during the last 20 Ka (fig. 6). It is results of M. Huhmann . On fig. 6 we can see different stages of the filling the valley from the edge to the channel. Three recent dates are matching of the fossil soils dating from the buried outcrop of former first terrace. Ukrainian geologists obtained the similar results for these soils 30 years ago . They ages are 340-900 years, 1700-1760 years and 2570-3000 years.
Fig. 6. The geochronology schematic section of the Dniester-valley .
In view of the foregoing, we can find explanations for interruptions in populated of the Dniester-valley by ancient man and changes of the settlements position. In Acheulean time in the Dniester-valley, in canyon section, the group settlements existed . These settlements were existed in the period 23-17 Ka BP. Between 10 – 13 Ka BP in the Dniester-river remained only two settlements. Until 8 Ka BP settlements are not revealed. On cross-section (fig. 6) they points out 11,5 –10,5 Ka BP segment (rightmost) was formatted. It is meaning that settlements were covered with mudflow. Re-populating lasted two thousand years. Since 8 Ka BP until 6 Ka BP. On cross-section (fig. 6) it points out that in 7,3 –5,5 Ka BP the next segment was formatted. Interruptions that appear in populated Dniester were fixed in multi-layering structure of some Paleolithic sites were caused by mudflow intensification on the northeastern Carpathians slope.
The multi-layering Paleolithic sites there are in canyon and as well as in the plain piece of the Dniester. The stratigraphy section of the excavation Molodove 5 site lies in the Dniester' canyon given in fig. 6A. Site have two cultural layers associated with sedimentation of the loess loam. Similar situation observed on Ezupil' site (fig. 6B). The existence of the several fossil soils shows that the interruptions between mudflows lasted hundreds or thousands of years. Availability of the different number of buried soils and cultural layers on these sites can be explaining according to the sites ages and activity of the mudflows on Dniester' tributaries.
Fig. 6. Stratigraphy of the Paleolithic Molodove 5 (A) and Ezupil' (B) sites .
1 - Holocene soil, 2 - Holocene soil horizon B, 3 - loam, 4 - horizon gleization, 5 - dark colored loam, 6 - buried soil, 7 - particulate layer (35.6 Ka), 8 - colorful loam, 9 - gray loam - gleization horizon, 10 - cultural layers
1 - Holocene soil, 2 - Holocene soil horizon B, 3 - Pleistocene loess, 4 - fossil soils, 5 - scree, 6 - nucleuses, 7 - pebbles, 8 - tools, 9 - plates, 10 - flakes, 11 - splinters and debris; 12 - cultural layers
Advancing in this problem revealed other mountain countries with the similar particularities of valley constructions. On the fig. 5 (top), the view of the north slope of Caucasus Mountains presented. All left influxes of the Kuban-river inflections are smooth and its profiles are stepless. The profile along the Laba-river snows on the insertion. The further prospecting revealed the same phenomena exist in many areas. Next few pictures illustrated it in Beskids Mountains (middle) and in Transylvania Alps (bottom).
Fig. 5. Visual representation of DEM for: Top - the northern slope of the Caucasus and hypsometric profiles along the Laba-river valley; Middle – Beskidy mountains; Bottom – Transylvania Alps. (K – Kuban-river; L – Laba-river, V – Vistula-river: S – San-river)
During processing DEM for the previous article, the similar to the Precarpathian rivers figures were observed in the structure of Pannonia rivers (fig. 6). In particular, these are two valleys – Bodrog and Sajo (Tisza tributaries).
Fig. 6. DEM-visual representation for the Bodrog and Sajo-rivers valleys (the south slope of the Tatra Mountains)
On the spring, 2011 Ukrainian archaeologists had asked to solve some geomorphologic problems for Transcarpathia (western slope of the Ukrainian Carpathians). The Transcarpathia is a constituent of the Pannonia basin. Moreover, the study its structure, first, demands the consideration of the regional geomorphology features as a whole. To this end, the first stage was the analysis DEM.
The contents of the following pictures permit, without any comments, to recognize the sequence of events and to estimate the catastrophe magnitude. From first glance, the northwest Pannonia basin (Little Hungarian Plain) aroused great interest. On the picture, the tracks after the large debris flows from the surrounding mountains were clear visible. Traces stretched from the southern slopes of North Carpathian Mountains in a southeasterly direction. Further, they crossed the Little Carpathian Mountains, the Little Hungarian Plane and Transdanubian ridge. The ends of the flood channels are visible in the center of the Great Hungarian Plane and close to Drava-river (fig. 7 and fig. 8).
Fig. 7. DEM-visual representation for the super mud-debris flows in Lower Austria and Great Pannonia Plan
The ridge and next plateau divided by several subparallel ditches, which are very similar to groove after the technical cutter. However, the lengthwise profiles along the channels are undulating, this case is requiring the flexible cutter.
Fig. 7 (referent 1). DEM -visual representation for the super mud-debris flows in Moravia, Lower Austria and Great Pannonia Plan
Fig. 7 (referent 2). General map Danube, Drava, Raba, Vah, Morava area
For more detailed study this and other map please visit to: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/library/maps/country_maps/metadata.cfm?mycountry=HU
The volumetric view shows the visible area where deluge happened (fig. 8). The beginnings of water-ice flow were in Morava-river basin. Beside it, the source was located in the Upper Danube basin too. The deluge development was basing on the same principals what deluge in Precarpathian. The southern exposition slopes, amphitheatre like shape closed from north and east were favorable for earth surface heating. In the case, when the south winds were carrying warm and moisture, the warming was very rapid. Main difference between ice-snow flow and mud-debris flows is that the ice-mud flow start to move when the inclination at 2-5O. Mud-debris flow - when the inclination at 10-12O. High speed moving of the large masses provokes seismic vibrations. After that, the deluge-feeding zone begun expands on nearby areas.
Fig. 8. DEM- volumetric visual representation for the super mud-debris flows in Lower Austria and Great Pannonia Plan
Now we to take note of some more interesting features what delude left along its way. First of them is block of the displaced rock in the Danube-valley on the opposite Bratislava bank (fig. 9 and 10, see fig. 7 (referent) too). It is about 12 km wide and 22 km long. Its high is up to 60 m. Sliding traces left on the place where block stayed before. The displace amplitude achieved 10 km.
Fig. 9. The breaking of a dyke (Lijta-hg., Kis Kárpátok on fig.7, ref.2)
Fig. 10. The displaced block in the Danube-valley on the opposite Bratislava bank
The reason for the small water discharge was the twists channel in the passage across the Transdanubian Mountain. Moreover, big trees, debris and rocks might to block this passage. It was reason for rapid filling the Small Hungarian Basin. The Transdanubian Mountains topography shows its overflow was begun in its southwest part where initial altitude was in interval 275-300 m (blue square).
Fig. 11. Deluge overflow across Transdanubian Mountains
Behind the southeast slope, the stream went into depression in which today Lake Balaton located. Maybe, this depression had been forming as the lithological phenomena. These roads were using and within final deluge stage (fig.12).
In the northeast Transdanubian Mountains (red square on the fig. 11) the stream achieved altitude up to 320 m more (fig. 13). It was possible because this area lies opposite the gap in the Little Karpaty (see fig. 7, ref. 1). The straight-line stream with big kinetics energy pushed water upward on this altitude. On the picture marked off two uppermost initial passages. The 320 m altitude show what was highest water level behind the mountain ridge. The water speed in lower point may calculate from equation mv2/2=mgh. It was about 30 m/s (110 km/h).
Fig. 12. The flow directions in Lake Balaton area (red arrows – the stream directions)
Fig. 13. Topography of the northeast Transdanubian Mountains
Closer to Lake Balaton channels cut into Dunantál plateau and crossed it (see fig. 7, ref. 1) from the northwest to the southeast (fig. 14). Its dimensions are 110 km long, 3-10 km wide and 20-60 m depth. The hypsometric profile along channel and the separate marked points show on the fig. 14.
Fig. 14. The hypsometric parameters of the after deluge channel across the Dunantál plateau.
The channel straightforwardness testifies to the height speed and tremendous energy. According the hypsometric profile, the water moved downward the one-third way and mechanically upward rest of the way (about 70 km). The differences of elevation between two points are about 40 m. It light of this, the required speed of water was at minimum about 28 m/s or 100 km/h. If to take into account the stream friction and the energy loss for channel shaping, the water speed in lower point was higher.
Fig. 15. Pre-Balaton lake at of 150 m level (blue area)
From the Little Hungarian Plane the water had escaped in few ways. They are visible on the fig. 7, 8 and 11. Only most southwest of them took part in forming of Lake Balaton pool. The water current through pool stopped when the water level in Little Pannonia Plane dropped below 150 m. It happened because the channel bottoms lies higher. The water current from the lake pool in northeast direction stopped. The passage between lake and Sed-river had been seperated by saddle. Its altitude is closer to 150 m (see insert on fig. 15). After that, Lake Balaton arose. Pre-Balaton lake shoreline is shows on fig. 15. When the Danube passage in Transdanubian ridge was recovered the water level in the lake dropped by 10 m. With water on of 140 m, Lake Balaton turned into isolated unit. At this altitude, the pass from lake into Marcal-river did not working (see fig. 15).
Fig. 16. The soil map
For more detailed study this and other map please visit to: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/library/maps/country_maps/metadata.cfm?mycountry=HU
During be the water level in the lake gradual (because negative water budget, maybe) was lowering up to 106 m. In inner the initial lake area, the peat deposits begun generate. These deposits mapped on the surrounding lake areas (fig. 16). They show in blue color on the map (#24).
Because, today the nektonic factors are taking up as the driving forces in formations of postdeluge channels and Lake Balaton [1, 8, 9, 10], this problems need for special examination. On the fig. 17 relations between the old drainage system and the postdeluge channels in the northwest Dunantál plateau are present. From picture, it is clear the post deluge channels were cutting the previous river system. The general direction of the old drainage system is from the west to east and the direction of the postdeluge channels is from northwest to southeast.
Fig. 17. Relation between the old drainage system and the postdeluge channels in the northwest Dunantál plateau with hypsometric profile along the Kapos-rive (between points A and B)
Let assume, the straight-line channels had been formed the first. In this case, the run-off on the Dunantál plateau will follow the channel system only. After this, the lack of water for creating the other directions systems emerged.
The longitudinal profile on the fig. 17 not contains any evident of vertical or lateral movements. The features of the post deluge channels do not keep any traces of neotectonic activity. It is mean the neotectonic had no influence on the landforming within Holocene and Pre-Holocene time. Only linearity and parallelism of channels formation was under control of geological features. The running water was using of the weak jointing zones of surface rocks.
In turn is the question, - when Lake Balaton emerged? Strangely enough, but answer is very easy and simple. There is the many of C14-dating of the lacustrine sediments from different layer . The age of the oldest of them is 12.5 Ka (Dryas I). This data is upper time limit of period when Lake Balaton occurred. One small but very interested particularity, this layer contains the redeposit elements from Pannonia (Upper Miocene) sediments. No doubt, the motion is result of the running water action.
The low time limit we can find from the archeology. The first evident is human footprints at Corvin-tér site in Budapest. The archaeological layer 1–3 cm thick lay above loam clay and under a silt loam layer. Interesting features are footprints in the silt loam. Most of these have shapes of animal feet and two humans (man and child). According the archaeological data the site the they age is 18-20 Ka 
Because, the dry loam clay is sufficient solid, the footprints can arise when it was soggy and soft. It is mean, the site was covered with water. The footprints were well preserved because immediately were covered with silt which filled every hole. Maybe, people and animals were escaping to the safe place. No doubt they were running away from deluge. The archaeological layer located at 10 m above Danube floodplain. For reaching this altitude the flood must be very strong. As memo about this flood the silt had been putted on this level. It is obvious, the water level was higher.
Beside the Corvin-tér site there are much other archeological evidences on deluge from Moravia, Western Slovakia and Lower Austria. On the fig. 18, the positions of the middle and upper Paleolithic sites in Moravia and Vah-river Valley are present . As you can see, most of sites been excavated and only few of them are open-air sites. Available data permit to show how and when Paleolithic sites have been buried in the Vah-river valley. For further prospecting three sites from fig. 18 will be taking into account: Nove Mesto, Lopata II and Trenčianske Bohuslavice.
Fig. 18. Position of excavated sites dated to OIS 3 (60–24 Ka) in Moravia [Petr NERUDA] with the additions of the author. 1. – Kůlna cave; 2. – Pod hradem cave; 3. – Šipka cave; 4. – Čertova díra cave; 5. – Mladeč caves; 6. – Dzeravá skála; 7. – Complex of Stránská skála sites; 8. – Brno-Bohunice; 9. – Vedrovice Ia; 10. – Vedrovice V; 11. – Moravský Krumlov IV; 12. – Milovice.
Currently, the more comprehensive results are for Nove Mesto site. They obtained 60 years ago . In that time the excavation works was providing in the open pit of brickyard. For this reasons the Paleolithic site been studied on the big depth and in many places.
On the next two pictures the stratigraphy of the Pr 7 and its photo are present. At the first glance the cross-section form Nove Mesto site reminiscences two cross-sections from Dnister area (see fig. 6). Artifacts have shifted. There are two-three fossil soils too. Therefore as minimum mudflow covered the Vah-river valley thrice. In this case, we focus on the latest. However, the Gravettian artifacts were displacement the catastrophe happened above 20 Ka BP.
Fig. 19. Nowe Mesto site profile #7 
For determination of the time for last super flooding the dating from two neighboring Paleolithic site (Lopata II and Trenčianske Bohuslavice) are useful. Trenčianske Bohuslavice site located 4 km upstream the Vah-river from Nove Mesto site (fig. 21 and see fig. 18). The site located on altitude 195 m a.s.l. and about 1 km distance from river channel. Altitude of the current floodplain is 185 m. In table 1 the radiocarbon dates from locality Trenčianske Bohuslavice – Pod Tureckom are given.
Fig. 20. Photo of the wall profile #7 
The discrepancy between the depth of finding artifacts and their age, the authors noted. However, they not identified reasons. The table shows the researchers performed three times dating. Nevertheless, the discrepancy has remained. Explain this fact if we assume that the artifacts been taken by a mudflow, then mixed with silt. Therefore, their vertical position is not correlating with age. With the exception of the youngest age determinations, we can say catastrophe had took please in period 23-22 Ka BP. The high of the mudflow calculated from the site altitude. It was at minimum 10 m above the altitude of current floodplain.
Fig. 21. Space view on Trenčianske Bohuslavice site area
In fact, the similar data received for Lopata II site (table 2). This site situated 21 km downstream from Nove Mesto site (outside the area from fig 18.) Measurements performed twice for the same reasons. Results were the same. Upper layer are older then lower layer. This phenomenon has explanation the same way that for Trenčianske Bohuslavice site. The artefacts of the both sites were mixed with silt and debris by mudflow simultaneously.
The altitude differences between site location and floodplain testify to the high of mudflow was 60 m more in this area. In the Nove Mesto area, high of the flow was about 40 m more.
Tab. 1. Radiocarbon dates from locality Trenčianske Bohuslavice – Pod Tureckom (uncalibrated dates). Notes of abbreviations: Gd – labor. Gliwice, GrA – Groningen, Lab. nr. – laboratory number, Meas. – measured .
Tab. 2. Radiocarbon dates from locality Moravany – Lopata II (uncalibrated dates).
Mentioned above data says that super mudflow match in 22-15 Ka. According to T. Cserny , the several shallow pools had been formed with pure and cool water after the climatic change bringing a warmer period approximately between 15-17 Ka BP. Nevertheless there are the C14 dating from Upper Paleolithic site located in Lower Austria (Saladorf, Langmannersdorf sites) shows that this event happened after 20-18 Ka BP . I.e. there is the sufficiently narrow time interval (20-15 Ka) when the super mudflow covered majority of Pannonia Basin. Obviously, for precise age determination the new prospecting is inevitable.
Iron Gate was as final rung for every flooding in Pannonia Basin. According the archaeological finds  along the Danube channel there are many Mesolithic and Neolithic sites. The oldest data has above 12 Ka BP. They are young in comparison to the super flood age. How this divergence must be interpreted?
First, the people abandoned the southern slope of the Western Carpathian by reasons of the hard environment conditions within the final stage of Wurm glaciations. Settlements in Lower Austria were left later because annual floods became stronger and stronger. The super mudflow occurred when the area upstream from Small Hungary Plane was unpopulated. Therefore, more accuracy determinations for this event require other initial data.
For these goals are useful the results of the alluvial deposits history studying . On the fig. 22 the lithostratigraphy of drill cores and clay pit sections along the studied transect in the Körös basin presents. One profile two buried surface are present. The Age of upper is approximately 15 Ka and 24 Ka – for lower. The age of the layers over the first buried surface is 14.1÷10.4 Ka. Please notice, in reality the ages of the oldest peat samples from Lake Balaton are 12.5 Ka and no more. Interval 15-17 Ka was predicted. However the time of super mudflow lei in interval between 12.5 Ka plus correction for peat formation and 14.1 Ka (oldest data from layer III (fig. 22).
The presence of the second buried soil evidences that before super mudflow 14-13 Ka BP the more ancient mudflow had took place. According to the dating on fig. 22 it happened after the 24 Ka BP. Two Mousterian finds preset on the fig. 19 and 20. One located in fossil soil, second below it. Because upper time limit of Mousterian is 30 Ka BP these finds are indirect evidences for mudflow after 24 Ka BP. There are additional indirect evidences. First ones is the age of finds from Lopata II and Trenčianske Bohuslavice sites. In majority they ages are youngest 24 Ka. Ages for only two samples are oldest than 25 Ka. Second ones is Gravel terrace in Lower Austria and Budapest area (Riis and Danube valleys). Deposits of that terrace lei beneath the archaeological layer on the Corvin-tér site in Budapest. All together these evidences are strong cause for further prospecting these problems. It is inevitable, the next question will be, - How and when the Clactonian and Levalloisian artefacts were buried?
Fig. 22. Lithostratigraphy of drill cores and clay pit sections along the studied transect in the Körös basin. The available OSL and radiocarbon data are shown. Based on the facie associations and FUP cycles, the cores and clay pit section have been subdivided into three major depositional units .
And final question, - What marks were saved in Iron Gate after the super mudflow? Answer is very simple. Super mudflow swept away all of those days settlements. Therefore the ages of the oldest finds are 12.6 Ka and 12.1 Ka. On the cross-sections Neolithic, Mesolithic, Post Palaeolithic and two Epipaleolithic layers are appointed . It means that within Holocene the environment conditions were unstable here. After the super mudflow the few low magnitude catastrophes took place in Pannonia Basin. It is reminiscent history of the Dnipro basin in Holocene. The few local catastrophes had occurred about 7 Ka and 5 Ka ago along the some of Dnipro tributaries .
Strong evident for the unstable environment conditions in Danube basin contents the paper by P. Schielein, G. Schellmann, J. Lomax . According the map from they paper (fig. 23), the eight terraces formed within Holocene. Or one terrace per 1400 years, it is often. In the table 3 the main morphological terraces parameters are present.
Fig. 23: Distribution, morphology and chronostratigraphy of fluvial terraces and the locations of drillings and examined outcrops in the study area .
Tab. 3: Chronology of Late Quaternary river terraces at the Lech – Danube confluence and their age evidences 
The consequence of the terraces formations is visible from the cross-section (fig. 23). Detentions of three earliest terraces are bigger that Middle Holocene and later terraces. It is mean the mud and water flows after the 6-5 Ka BP became weaker. But as exchanging of the settlements location talk that flooding were strong enough for effecting on them living conditions.
Fig. 24: Schematic cross – section of the Danube valley. Architecture and morphology of Late Quaternary fluvial deposits (compiled on the basis of DEM, field mapping, drilling cores and outcrops) and their age evidences in the Danube valley upstream and downstream of the Lech – Danube confluence at the study area. (HT - The less elevated Hochterrassen). .
Three next photos illustrated how the catastrophic floods effected on the environments and human being. First example (fig. 25) took from Vorskla-river (east Ukraine). The fossil soil with stem of tree (oak), animals born there are in left bank river. In this area 10 Neolithic sites buried 5 Ka ago . Next picture show the buried logjam on the Dnister-river . This example no accompanied with the chronological and archaeological data. Third photo present the wall of the Mira Palaeolithic site (middle Dnipro). Archaeological layer (27 - 29 Ka BP) buried under 15-20 m alluvial thickness. Altitude layer above the floodplain 10 m. The high of the flood was 25-30 m. It had been happened 23-22 Ka BP .
Fig. 25. Left bank of the Vorskla-river in Novi Sanzhary town (Eastern Ukraine)
Fig. 26. The buried stem of tree (oak) in Dnister-river (near Stryj town)
Photo by P. Voloshyn
Fig. 27. The wall Mira site view (Middle Dnipro)
Photo by S. Ryzhov
There are examples of individual tragedies. When the flow picked up a man and buried it. In fig. 28 showing the remains of a young woman who lay at a depth of 1.55 m in loess. Skeleton have traces of significant damage . This incident occurred 12.6 th. years ago while the latter generally a basin of disaster.
Fig. 28. Human remains from the Lascheve-village 
Photo by S. Ryzov
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